Alpha brainwaves

Alpha brainwaves are typically accessed in deep relaxation or when you find yourself zoning out. During daydreams you are in the alpha state. Alpha tends to be the most productive wave for meditation and vizualization.


Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, fear , apprehension and worrying. These disorders affect how we feel and behave, and they manifest real physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, having a serious impact on daily life


Arousal is an awakening from sleep. However, it may also refer to a change from a so – called “deeper” stage of non – REM sleep to somewhat “lighter” stage. Arousal Disorder is one of the parasomnia disorders, which occurs because of some abnormal arousal function. Some classic arousal disorders are confusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors .



Beta brainwaves

Beta brainwaves are the  dominant brainwave most of us tend to find ourselves in. Anytime we are in conversation, using logic or reasoning, or any higher level cognitive functions we are functioning within the beta frequency. While Beta is obviously important it is at this level where you tend to get increased levels of stress and anxiety.

Biological clock

 Biological Clock is the collection of cells in the organism, which regulates an over biological rhythm, like the sleep / awake cycle and other aspects of biological timing.

Brain Waves

Brain Waves are the spontaneous electrical activity of the brain, which is investigated by electroencephalography (EEG).



Chronic Insomnia

Chronic Insomnia – is one of the types of insomnia, which occurs at least three days every week and lasts more than half a year. Such factors as some hormonal fluctuations, ageing, some medical conditions and / or treatment, as well as psychiatric illness, etc. may be possible reasons of chronic insomnia.


Circadian means exhibiting a periodicity of 24 hours.

Circadian Rhythm

Circadian Rhythm is the daily rhythmic activity cycle, exhibited by many living organisms, which is based on 24 – hour intervals. It is especially related to fluctuation of behavioral and physiological functions, including sleep walking.Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders are disorders, which have anything to do with the timing of sleep within the 24 – hour period. Some of  these disorders may be influenced by the timing of the sleep period, which is under the control of a person, for example shift work, time zone change, etc. However  other disorders are of the neurological character: irregular sleep – wake pattern, advanced sleep phase syndrome, etc.



Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome

 Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome is the kind of sleep disorder, which is connected with the person’s Circadian Rhythm. This condition is considered to result from the endogenous circadian pacemaker being so – to – say “stuck” at a later – than – normal phase, which is relative to the desired sleep – wake schedule.

Delta Sleep

Delta Sleep is the name of the stage of sleep, when EEG delta waves are either prevalent or predominant. It usually occurs during sleep stages 3 and 4. This stage of sleep is characterized by slowing down dramatically from the “theta” rhythm of sleep stage 2 to a much slower rhythm of 1 to 2 cycles per second, which is called “delta” and the height or amplitude of the waves get increased dramatically.

In most healthy people these two sleep stages occur to be completed within the first two 90 minutes sleep cycles or within the first three hours of sleep. It is considered to be the delta sleep, which is the “deepest” stage of sleep, and which is the most restorative stage of sleep .

Delta Waves

Delta Waves are called brain waves, which occur with a frequency of 1 up to 3 hertz, and they emanate from the forward portion of the brain during the deep sleep stage in healthy adult people.

Drowsiness means the same as sleepiness. It may be cause by several factors: by some drugs, by tiredness, by lack of strength, by low blood pressure, etc.





Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the kind of a procedure, during which the electrical activity, which is associated with the brain activity, is measured.


Entrain means to reset or align with someone’s biological clock.




Fatigue is the term, which is used to describe any feeling of lack of energy, tiredness, weariness, and it is usually associated with lower performance (either physical or mental). This condition can develop in response to boredom, emotional stress, lack of sleep, physical exertion, etc.



GABA (Gamma – Aminobutyric Acid) is the name of an amino acid, contained in the brain, which aids sleep by providing the natural relaxation of the muscles of the body and by calming all emotions down.




Homeostasis is called the tendency or the ability of a cell or an organism to keep internal equilibrium by having adjusted its internal processes.  Homeostatic Regulation of Sleep refers to  the neurobiological signals that work by mediating the pressure or urge to sleep.


Hypersomnia “hyper” means more, and “somnia” means sleep; together they mean more sleep. If you suffer hypersomnia it means you sleep too much, which can be a secondary symptom of other medical or psychological problems.


Hypothalamus is the name of the part of the brain, which is situated below the thalamus. The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate body temperature as well as the metabolic processes of every organism.




Insomnia is any sleeplessness, which impairs the next – day functioning and cause such problems, as difficulty concentrating, fatigue, irritability, sleepiness. People, who suffer from insomnia, have one or more of the below mentioned phenomena:

– Difficulty falling asleep;

– Waking up many times during the night and experiencing difficulty going back to sleep;

– Waking up too early in the morning.

– Not feeling refreshed when they wake up in the morning

Insomnia symptoms fall into three categories:

• Transient: lasting less than one week

• Short-term: lasting one to three weeks

• Chronic: lasting one month or longer




Melatonin is the name of a hormone, which is secreted by the pineal gland that is derived from amino acids such as tryptophan. This amino acid helps to synchronize the biological clock neurons thus helping people get to sleep easier. Melatonin is stimulated by cues in changes in the natural light. Melatonin levels increase after nightfall, inspiring drowsiness, and decrease after dawn for wakefulness.



Non-REM Sleep

Non–REM Sleep (NREM) is a normal part of every healthy person’s sleep. This sleep period accounts typically 75 – 80% of the entire sleep time. The NREM Sleep is characterized by somewhat slower and larger brain waves, rather than in REM. Non REM sleep includes  the Beta , Alpha, Theta and Delta stages of sleep.



Pineal Gland

The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system. The pineal gland is involved in several functions of the body including:

– Secretion of the Hormone Melatonin

– Regulation of Endocrine Functions

– Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals

– Causes Feeling of Sleepiness

– Influences Sexual Development



Rapid Eye Movement

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep is the period of a deep sleep, when rapid eye movements take place. This REM period of sleep is considered to be normal part of everyone’s sleep cycle. It reoccurs in a cyclical manner and can repeat up to several times during a normal period of sleep. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep is characterized by depressed muscle tone and by increased neurological activity of the forebrain and midbrain. The majority of dreaming occurs during this stage of sleep, which accounts for about 20% of sleep in adult people.

REM Period

REM Period is the REM part of a NREM – REM cycle. In case if it occurs early in the night, it may be as short as a half – minute, however, in later cycles, REM Period may last even longer than one hour.




Serotonin is the kind of a neurotransmitter, which is involved in several important functions of the body. To these functions belong arousal, emotions, memory, moods and sleep.



Sleep is the name of the natural period suspension of consciousness, during which the energy levels of the body get restored. Sleep is also characterized by lessened consciousness and slowed – down metabolic processes.


Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders is a general term, which can be applied to a great variety of illnesses, including abnormalities in psychological functions of the person during sleep, abnormalities of the person’s biological clock, dysfunctional sleep mechanisms, sleep disturbances, etc.


Sleep Fragmentation

Sleep Fragmentation is the process or phenomenon of sleep interruption because of the frequent sustained awakenings or because of early morning awakenings.

Sleep hygiene

Sleep hygiene is a variety of different practices that are necessary to have normal, quality nighttime sleep and full daytime alertness. It basically means looking at some of the behavioural and environmental factors which may be impacting someones sleep. These include going to bed at regular times, exercise regularly, have a relaxing pre bedtime routine and so on.


Stress is caused by two things. Primarily it is down to whether you think situations around you are worthy of anxiety. And then it’s down to how your body reacts to your thought processes. This instinctive stress response to unexpected events is known as ‘fight or flight’. It is a hard-wired reaction to perceived threats to our survival.



Theta brainwaves

Theta  brainwaves are considered the gateway between the realm of your subconscious and your waking reality. This state is experienced typically twice per day. The first time it is experienced is when you drift from alpha into sleep and again when you wake up from the delta frequen